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The Administrator shall retain all files, annexes — other than the exhibits — and records that are required by these Rules to be kept for the period of time specified in the retention schedule established by the Court.
The Court may give directions to facilitate the conduct of a hearing by the use of any electronic or digital means of communication or storage or retrieval of information, or any other technology it considers appropriate.
Slavery was known in civilizations as old as Sumer, as well as in almost every other ancient civilization, including Ancient Egypt, Ancient China, the Akkadian Empire, Assyria, Babylonia, Ancient Iran, Ancient Greece, India, the Roman Empire, the Arab Islamic Caliphate and Sultanate, Nubia and the pre-Columbian civilizations of the Americas.
French historian Fernand Braudel noted that slavery was endemic in Africa and part of the structure of everyday life.
Slavery was known in the very first civilizations such as Sumer in Mesopotamia which dates back as far as 3500 BC, as well as in almost every other civilization.
The Byzantine–Ottoman wars and the Ottoman wars in Europe resulted in the taking of large numbers of Christian slaves.Slavery became common within much of Europe during the Dark Ages and it continued into the Middle Ages.The Dutch, French, Spanish, Portuguese, British, Arabs and a number of West African kingdoms played a prominent role in the Atlantic slave trade, especially after 1600. Forsythe wrote: "The fact remained that at the beginning of the nineteenth century an estimated three-quarters of all people alive were trapped in bondage against their will either in some form of slavery or serfdom." However, slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help: IPA.⟩ palatalization of the preceding consonant without adding a vowel. Fehlernachrichten und Ergänzungsvorschläge bitte an/Notice of errors and suggestions for new entries please to: Dieter.